To NTFS or not to NTFS -- that is the question. But unlike the deeper questions of life, this one isn't really all that hard to answer. For most users running Windows XP, NTFS is the obvious choice. It's more powerful and offers security advantages not found in the other file systems. But let's go over the differences among the files systems so we're all clear about the choice. There are essentially three different file systems available in Windows XP: FAT16, short for File Allocation Table, FAT32, and NTFS, short for NT File System.
FAT16 The FAT16 file system was introduced way back with MS-DOS in 1981, and it's showing its age. It was designed originally to handle files on a floppy drive, and has had minor modifications over the years so it can handle hard disks, and even file names longer than the original limitation of 8.3 characters, but it's still the lowest common denominator. The biggest advantage of FAT16 is that it is compatible across a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows 95/98/Me, OS/2, Linux, and some versions of UNIX. The biggest problem of FAT16 is that it has a fixed maximum number of clusters per partition, so as hard disks get bigger and bigger, the size of each cluster has to get larger. In a 2 - GB partition, each cluster is 32 kilobytes, meaning that even the smallest file on the partition will take up 32 KB of space. FAT16 also doesn't support compression, encryption, or advanced security using access control lists.
FAT32 The FAT32 file system, originally introduced in Windows 95 Service Pack 2, is really just an extension of the original FAT16 file system that provides for a much larger number of clusters per partition. As such, it greatly improves the overall disk utilization when compared to a FAT16 file system. However, FAT32 shares all of the other limitations of FAT16, and adds an important additional limitation -- many operating systems that can recognize FAT16 will not work with FAT32 -- most notably Windows NT, but also Linux and UNIX as well. Now this isn't a problem if you're running FAT32 on a Windows XP computer and sharing your drive out to other computers on your network -- they don't need to know (and generally don't really care) what your underlying file system is.
The Advantages of NTFS The NTFS file system, introduced with first version of Windows NT, is a completely different file system from FAT. It provides for greatly increased security, file-by-file compression, quotas, and even encryption. It is the default file system for new installations of Windows XP, and if you're doing an upgrade from a previous version of Windows, you'll be asked if you want to convert your existing file systems to NTFS. Don't worry. If you've already upgraded to Windows XP and didn't do the conversion then, it's not a problem. You can convert FAT16 or FAT32 volumes to NTFS at any point. Just remember that you can't easily go back to FAT or FAT32 (without reformatting the drive or partition), not that I think you'll want to.
The NTFS file system is generally not compatible with other operating systems installed on the same computer, nor is it available when you've booted a computer from a floppy disk. For this reason, many system administrators, myself included, used to recommend that users format at least a small partition at the beginning of their main hard disk as FAT. This partition provided a place to store emergency recovery tools or special drivers needed for reinstallation, and was a mechanism for digging yourself out of the hole you'd just dug into. But with the enhanced recovery abilities built into Windows XP (more on that in a future column), I don't think it's necessary or desirable to create that initial FAT partition.
When to Use FAT or FAT32 If you're running more than one operating system on a single computer, you will definitely need to format some of your volumes as FAT. Any programs or data that need to be accessed by more than one operating system on that computer should be stored on a FAT16 or possibly FAT32 volume. But keep in mind that you have no security for data on a FAT16 or FAT32 volume -- any one with access to the computer can read, change, or even delete any file that is stored on a FAT16 or FAT32 partition. In many cases, this is even possible over a network. So do not store sensitive files on drives or partitions formatted with FAT file systems.
Mr. Sang Whang is a successful inventor, scientist, and engineer. He explains the health and anti aging processes in layman terms in his book, Reverse Aging. Below is an excerpt from that book.
In order to learn how to get younger, we must understand the process of anti aging and an alkaline diet.
Handling natural health improvement devices developed in Japan a few years, I have witnessed as well as personally experienced many mysterious phenomenon in the reverse aging effect.
Being a scientist, engineer, and inventor, I have tried to understand and explain the phenomenon scientifically, applying the scientific principles of those non-drug, natural health improvement devices. During the course of the study, I came to a realization of what the human aging process is about. The great news is that, with this new theory, the anti aging process can be explained, and ANYBODY CAN GET YOUNGER IF HE OR SHE SO DESIRES.
THE AGING PROCESS
We get old because we are not disposing of all the internally generated wastes and toxins, and accumulate the leftovers within our body.
For our body to function and to maintain body temperature, we burn nutrients within our cells. The main ingredients of all foods, expensive or inexpensive, gourmet or junk, vegetable or meat, alkaline or acid, are either carbohydrates, proteins or fats. And they are nothing but the combinations of four elements: carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen.
After these nutrients are burnt (oxidized) in the cells, they all turn into organic acids: carbonic acids, uric acids, lactic acids, fatty acids, ammonia, etc. Fats are acidic even before oxidation. The Chinese word for oxygen is written with two characters, "sahn-so". They literally mean "acid root".
These acidic wastes and toxins are disposed out of the body in liquid form, as urine or perspiration, after first being dissolved into the blood. Every element within our body was place there by the blood and can come out of there by first being dissolved into the blood and then being carried out. If anyone loses ten pounds by any dietary means, it can be said that most of that ten pounds came out through the urine.
Unfortunately, due to our life styles and environments (i.e., too much ingestion, overwork, over indulgence, not enough rest, staying up late, not enough exercise, inadequate water consumption, smoking, pollution, low alkaline diet etc.) the body cannot get rid of all the acidic waste products that it generates within. We accumulate these left over waste products somewhere within our body. This is the process of getting old.
To make matters worse, mixed with these organic acids are inorganic acid minerals such as chlorine, phosphor, and sulfur that come in with most of our acidic foods: meats, grains and root crops. We don't eat enough of alkaline diet (anti aging) foods such as fruits and vegetables that contain inorganic alkaline minerals: calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, etc.
Although the amounts of inorganic minerals are small compared with the organic acid wastes that the body produces, they contribute more towards the acid side. However, one important thing to note is that even if one does not eat any acidic food at all, as long as carbohydrates and proteins are consumed, the body produces much more acidic wastes than the inorganic alkaline minerals can counteract.
We are born with high alkaline blood pH of 7.44. As we get older, the blood pH drops down to 7.35 or below. The blood pH referred to here is the artery blood pH. The difference of 0.09 in pH value seems very small but since pH is logarithmic, the amount of hydroxyl ion (OH-) in 7.44 pH is 1.23 times that of 7.35 pH, because 10=1.2303.
The hydroxyl ion is an oxygen donor while the hydrogen ion (H+) is an oxygen taker. In other words, young people carry 23% more of the oxygen donors in their blood than older people. No wonder they are more energetic.
Uric acid is nearly insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether, but soluble in solutions of alkaline salts. In other words, it becomes soluble in alkaline water. Arthritis and gout are caused by uric acid deposited between the joints, non-dissolved due to the low alkalinity of an older person's blood. Drinking acid free alkaline water will gradually elevate one's blood pH and the gout will disappear naturally. (More about this acid free alkaline water later)
As we live with poor waste disposal systems for a long period of time, some parts of our body build up more acids than others, and they can clog up capillary vessels around those acidic areas. This causes some body organs to function in a sluggish manner. We feel tired and run down sometimes for no reason whatsoever, and adult diseases such as high blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, asthma, allergies, etc. start to set in WE SIMPLY ACCEPT THESE PHENOMENA AS "GETTING OLD."
In some extreme cases, the build up of acidic elements are so great that it starts to destroy healthy cells around them. Healthy cells must maintain a slightly alkaline pH level. Some cells change their formula in order to survive in an acidic environment. If they are successful, this is the beginning of cancer. Cancer cells are acidic while healthy cells are alkaline. Even if the cancerous tumors are completely removed surgically, as long as the acidic conditions in the area remain, the chances are that new tumors will develop around the same area.
Exactly where the left over waste products are accumulated may very according to every individual. However, the parts of the body where wastes accumulate first may determine what kind of adult disease that individual may develop first. Within one family, the storage places may be similar. This may explain the hereditary effects of certain adult diseases.
THE ANTI AGING PROCESS
Because the accumulation of waste products inside the body is the aging process, helping the body to get rid of the OLD waste products is the anti aging process.
This reverse aging process takes two steps. The first step is to develop a good disposal system and the second step is to pull out the old wastes from their hiding places.
Development of A Good Disposal System
Since, as mentioned before, the waste disposal is done in liquid form by urine and perspiration, it is imperative that we drink plenty of water, When one is going through any diet program, doctors tell him to drink 8 glasses of water a day. They know the disposal is through urine, but they don't tell you what kind of water to drink.
Since all waste products are acidic, the best kind of water is acid free alkaline water. Drinking 4 glasses of this alkaline water is much more effective than 8 glasses of regular, bottled water or filtered tap water. There are devices called water ionizers that split alkaline minerals and acid minerals in regular tap water by electrical means.
A quality water ionizer takes in regular tap water which has both acid and alkaline minerals in it and has a typical pH value of 7. The system then releases water with a pH value of 9 or higher with all the alkaline minerals from the original tap water. At the same time it releases acidic water with a pH value of 5 or lower with all the acid minerals in the original tap water.
Since this alkaline water has twice as many alkaline minerals as the original water but NO acid minerals, it is more than twice as potent as the original water. Inside our body, it will neutralize only acidic elements and discharge them safely out of the body. Drinking 8 glasses of regular water can leach out acidic wastes as well as some valuable alkaline minerals such as potassium. That's why doctors test your blood when you are going through a serious diet program. With this alkaline water there is no worry about losing potassium from your system.
The statements enclosed herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The products mentioned on this site are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your family doctor.